Hardly any other event is more about men and women than pregnancy and the impending birth. During the nine months in which the new life is growing, the expectant parents go through a sea of emotions. Joy, fear, insecurity, dreams and desires go hand in hand with the mother's physical changes. But 10 to 30% of all pregnancies end in miscarriage: the child can not be discharged.
What is a miscarriage?
A "miscarriage" (abortion) is when the child is born dead weighing less than 500 grams. Stillborn babies over 500 grams are known as stillbirths. After the pregnancy, a distinction is made between an early miscarriage (until the 12th week of pregnancy) and late miscarriage (until the 25th week of pregnancy).
Causes of a miscarriage
There are several causes for a miscarriage:
- Genetic defects of the embryo
- Maternal factors such as infections or malformations of the uterus or placenta
- Hormonal disorders (eg, a luteal hormone weakness)
- Blood group incompatibilities
- On the father's side, malformations of the sperm and genetic disorders can lead to abortions.
More than half of the early abortions are probably due to faulty fruit plants. It is therefore a perfectly sensible reaction of the body not to let this malformed embryo continue to grow.
Often confused with a heavy menstrual period
Miscarriage is typically associated with vaginal bleeding and the onset of labor. The bleeding is also the reason that a large number of miscarriages are not recorded in the very early pregnancy, because they are considered delayed, very heavy menstrual bleeding. The risk of a miscarriage decreases during pregnancy: If it is about 15% in the first 6-8 weeks, it is reduced to about 3% by the 17th week of pregnancy.
The physicians distinguish miscarriages primarily from a clinical point of view, although in the fewest cases the decisive cause can be found: In the case of imminent miscarriage (Abortus imminens) a bleeding has occurred, but the pregnancy is still intact. In this case, you will try everything to get the pregnancy. Bed rest, contractions and sedatives are often used.
In abortion incipiens the miscarriage has already begun, the amniotic sac has jumped and the contractions have begun. In this case, the miscarriage can no longer be stopped. Doctors endeavor to terminate the birth without further complications for the mother.
In case of incomplete miscarriage (Abortus imcompletus) there are still residues such as the placenta in the uterus. Again, the birth must be stopped as soon as possible in the clinic.
Child death in the uterus
In some cases, the child dies in the womb without contractions or bleeding. The mothers notice that the child does not move anymore. Infant death in the uterus is then detected by ultrasound. In this case the birth is medically initiated. Usually the mother takes the dead child on a "natural" path to the world, which is extremely stressful for the woman in question but helps her to get rid of the miscarriage.
Bleeding during pregnancy is always a reason to visit your doctor or the clinic directly. If a miscarriage can not be stopped, the birth must be stopped as soon as possible so that the mother does not suffer complications and the cause can be started.