When in 1861 the first bicycles with front-wheel drive appeared in France in 1861 - called Vélocipèds or "bone shakers" because they had no pneumatic tires - people did not suspect which boom spinning (also: indoor cycling) took place some 150 years later Gyms around the world would experience. In fitness studios, the bicycle ergometers have become indispensable, because they allow joint-gentle endurance training on the bike at any time of the day or season. Dense road traffic and bad weather conditions can be safely forgotten, if one logs on to a spinning course. Spinning means nothing more than indoor cycling or indoor cycling, but is a protected term of the American racing professional Jonathan Goldblum, who has "invented" the stationary bike.
Cycling with group dynamics
The equipment in the studios has a large flywheel, which weighs at least 15 kilos, with a continuously adjustable brake, with which the resistance can be adjusted. The beat, that is the cadence, is given by the music or the coach. Individually on a rotary knob can be set whether you want to make an easy ride or a ride up and down, in which you also have to get out of the saddle for a short time to keep up.
Speaking of saddle: These are not very comfortable. The inexperienced get some pain in the butt, because a training session lasts for an entire hour. There is no idle, permanent pedaling is announced. In a 60-minute spinning unit, men consumed an average of 643 kcal and women 500 kcal.
Correct endurance training
Cycling, whether indoors or outdoors, promotes endurance, protects the cardiovascular system and can be easily integrated into everyday life. As the body weight is carried by the wheel, the spine and joints are spared, which is especially important for the overweight and people with diseases of the musculoskeletal system of particular importance.
To avoid overloading cycling, doctors recommend small gears at high cadence. In principle, this is the same outside as in the studio: After a five to ten minute warm-up phase with slow cycling, one strikes a brisk and steady pace. In the main phase, tempo and resistance vary. The individual exercise blocks are usually based on the length of songs and last four to five minutes, followed by about a two-minute recovery and drinking phase.
The right heart rate
A training session ends with a warm-up phase at a reduced pace. Loosening and stretching exercises in between are important. In any case, you should work with a heart rate monitor. The standard formula for an optimal training pulse in cycling is: Maximum pulse: 220 (men) or 230 (women) minus age. This formula is just a rough guide. A good endurance training state usually shows at a lower resting heart rate.
While the heart of the untrained beats between 70 and 80 times per minute, values below 60 are the rule for trained amateur athletes. This means that the blood pressure is regulated, because the heart promotes the same amount of blood with less strokes, the breaks between the individual strokes are longer. In addition, there are better flow properties of the blood and thus also lower cholesterol and blood lipid levels.
Since it is best to exercise between 60-85% of your maximum heart rate, it is important to use a heart rate monitor. Too low (below 60) or too high (over 120) treadmills (rpm = revolutions per minute) minutes should be avoided to prevent knee problems. Mostly between 80-120 rpm is driven, which depends however also on the driving technique, which was selected.
For the beginner, the focus is on moderate cardiovascular training with light technique exercises to improve basic stamina and fat burning. Advanced people want to improve their fitness (stamina and strength).
The Ärzteblatt writes about the risks: "Particularly in older participants with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease or existing risk factors, the resilience needs to be checked within preventive examinations, where the specification of an individual training heart rate, especially from the point of view of training effectiveness, makes sense." (Deutsches Ärzteblatt 2006; 103 (7))
A special form of spinning is Aqua-Spinning or Aqua-Cycling. Here are the wheels in the water, the upper body is, you sit on the bike, above the surface and the water reaches only to the hips.
After a relaxed warm-up phase, the arms are used, for example, they are pulled laterally through the water. Pedaletreten standing up alternates with the kicking while sitting. Aqua cycling can be done in two directions: forward or backward pedaling is possible. This can be very exhausting because you feel the water resistance.
Aqua-Spinning works well with joint problems and is an important rehabilitation measure. The movement in the water acts like a massage. The legs, buttocks, arms and abdomen are tightened and the cardiovascular system is strengthened.
In addition, the body weight in the water is reduced to about a tenth, which relieves the joints. Especially for knee injuries Aqua-Cycling should ensure a faster healing. Due to the reduced body weight in the water, the protection taken under normal gravity is lifted. The regeneration of the knee joint is faster and more effective.