Only career, then child: the number of women, in which the stem-holder is only over 30, grows. Does this also increase the health risk of mother and child? Today it is no longer a problem to have a healthy baby over the age of 35, say one. The risk of giving birth to a disabled child increases with the age of the mother, others say. Both are true. However, the risks of late pregnancy can be largely avoided if the expectant mother consistently uses the possibilities of preventive care and also checks her blood sugar and blood pressure at home.
Malformation rate is greater
There is no way out: Chromosomal disorders increase with the age of pregnant women. This means that the offspring either gets too much or too little genetic information. The most common deviation is Down syndrome (trisomy 21), in which a child has three instead of two chromosomes 21.
For example, a woman who has a child at the age of 37 is 6 times more likely to give birth to a child with Down's syndrome than a 25-year-old. Therefore, the doctors are obliged to point out the possibility of so-called prenatal diagnosis to every pregnant woman from the age of 35 or if the parents together are 70 years old.
Methods like chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis are currently the only way to unequivocally diagnose fetal harm such as hemophilia, Down syndrome, or open back. However, there are risks: The embryo can be damaged by an infection, and the risk of causing a miscarriage through this procedure is 0.5 percent. The study of chromosomes is by no means compulsory. If pregnant women refuse abortion even in the case of a child's birth or possible disability, the chromosome examination will be discontinued.
Well-adjusted to diabetes during pregnancy
Women whose babies do not reach the age of 30 have an increased risk of becoming diabetic during pregnancy. A diabetes, which shows itself for the first time during forty months of fortune, does this inconspicuous. There are no indications. The expectant mother feels well, has no complaints.
Mostly, there is only a sugar-use disturbance immediately after meals - experts call it post-prandial hyperglycemia - but there are no usual clinical symptoms, such as thirst, increased urination and weight loss. Nevertheless, the child is in danger. In addition to an increased miscarriage rate, diabetics give more (2 to 3 percent) malformed babies to the world. Women over 30 years of age and overweight, as well as miscarriages or stillbirths, are more likely to be affected.
The problem: The usual urine test strips only cover 2 percent of the actual 6 percent of women with gestational diabetes. For example, because the sugar excretion changes across the kidneys, the test shows false positives. The urine sugar may also be in the standard, although the pregnant woman has diabetes.
Problem gestational diabetes
More safety promises the so-called oral glucose tolerance test (OGT), which is recommended between the 24th and 28th week of pregnancy. In the US, he is made with all pregnant women, in Germany he has not been included in the maternity guidelines and is therefore not reimbursed by the statutory health insurance. Tip: Those who are not privately insured should address the doctor specifically for this test and pay for it themselves. After all, it's an investment in the future!
Here's how it works: The pregnant woman drinks a defined glucose solution (sugar solution). Then the blood sugar is determined. Limit values are: fasting: <90 mg / dl, after 1 h: <165 mg / dl, after 2 h: <145 mg / dl, after 3 h: <125 mg / dl. If two or more blood glucose levels are abnormally high after the glucose drink, gestational diabetes is diagnosed. If the fasting blood sugar is already elevated, the pregnant woman usually has to inject insulin until delivery.
Medicines that are not used by pregnant diabetics are taboo for expectant mothers. They would harm the unborn child. The blood sugar must be well adjusted and strictly controlled. Why? An excessive blood sugar would literally fatten the unborn child with sugar. The little person puts on immense weight and size. The organs are usually immature, as it corresponds to their stage of development.
Attention! Anyone who had gestational diabetes should expect diabetes to persist even after childbirth or years later and then permanently. To track the disease in good time, it makes sense to do the glucose stress test every one to two years.
Regularly measure blood pressure
A second condition in which a good attitude is needed is pre-eclampsia, popularly known as pregnancy poisoning. About 5 to 7 percent of pregnant women develop hypertension, especially if they are overweight and older. If increased protein excretion in the urine and edema are added after week 20, the symptoms of pre-eclampsia are complete.
In technical language the complaints are also called EPH-gestosis. E, P and H are the first letters of English for the symptoms: E stands for edema (edema, water retention), P for proteinuria (protein excretion) and H for hypertension (high blood pressure). Due to the associated circulatory disorders, tissue damage to the organs can occur over time.
The actual cause is unclear. As a trigger, a disturbed interaction between the maternal immune system and the foreign protein of the fetus is discussed. Consequence: Certain parts of the mother cake are not supplied with blood, the child is under-supplied. 20 to 30 percent of miscarriages are due to high blood pressure of the mother.
But even this is at risk: the kidneys hold back sodium and water and increase the accumulation of water in the body. As soon as the liver activity is impaired, upper abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting become noticeable. It can also cause dizziness, headaches and blurred vision. The mother can get brain cramps (eclampsia), lungs and heart can fail. Cerebral haemorrhages, kidney and liver failure are summarized as HELLP syndrome.
A blood pressure of 140/90 mmHg indicates a mild pre-eclampsia, values above 160/110 mmHg indicate a severe severity. In any case, it makes sense to measure your blood pressure several times a day. So you can intervene quickly, if it should come to complications.
Nausea: uncomfortable, but not ominous
Not always, it's tangible diseases that make Eva's legacy a complicated burden. Sometimes it comes only to one or the other health inconvenience. For example, more than half of the mothers-to-be startling the pregnancy in the first few months. Small consolation: Mostly the spook is over at the latest after the 14th week.
Nausea, often associated with vomiting, is an indication of a normal developing pregnancy. The reasons for these ailments are not fully understood. However, there seems to be an association with HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin), which is formed in the outer sheath of the amniotic sac and stimulates the secretion of progesterone.
From the second trimester of pregnancy, the placenta takes over the tasks of HCG, which is now gradually decreasing. That's probably the reason why the nausea subsides after about this time. The question of why not all pregnant women is sick can not be answered at the moment.
Tip: Since the pregnancy usually strikes the stomach in the morning when getting up, it should help to eat a bite in the morning in bed before getting up. It is best to prepare a small snack in the evening before going to bed, be it a rusks or an apple. Distribute several small meals throughout the day. With frequent vomiting is plenty of fluid to drink. Only when the evil is pronounced, antiemetics (funds for nausea and vomiting) should be used under medical supervision.